A croissant (UK:, US:, French: [kwas] (listen)) is a buttery, flaky, viennoiserie pastry of Austrian origin, but mostly associated with France. Croissants are named for their historical crescent shape and, like other viennoiseries, are made of a layered yeast-leavened dough. The dough is layered with butter, rolled and folded several times in succession, then rolled into a thin sheet, in a technique called laminating. The process results in a layered, flaky texture, similar to a puff pastry. Crescent-shaped breads have been made since the Renaissance, and crescent-shaped cakes possibly since antiquity. Croissants have long been a staple of Austrian, Italian, and French bakeries and ptisseries. The modern croissant was developed in the early 20th century. In the late 1970s, the development of factory-made, frozen, pre-formed but unbaked dough made them into a fast food that can be freshly baked by unskilled labor. The croissant bakery, notably the La Croissanterie chain, was a French response to American-style fast food, and as of 2008, 3040% of the croissants sold in French bakeries and patisseries were baked from frozen dough. Croissants are a common part of a continental breakfast in many European countries. Origin and history The kipferl, the origin of croissant, can be dated back to at least the 13th century in Austria, and came in various shapes.