A number of peace symbols have been used many ways in various cultures and contexts. The dove and olive branch was used symbolically by early Christians and then eventually became a secular peace symbol, popularized by a Dove lithograph by Pablo Picasso after World War II. In the 1950s the 'peace sign', as it is known today (also known as 'peace and love'), was designed by Gerald Holtom as the logo for the British Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND), a group at the forefront of the peace movement in the UK, and adopted by anti-war and counterculture activists in the US and elsewhere. The symbol is a super-imposition of the semaphore signals for the letters 'N' and 'D', taken to stand for 'nuclear disarmament', while simultaneously acting as a reference to Goya's The Third of May 1808 (1814) (aka 'Peasant Before the Firing Squad'). The V hand signal and the peace flag also became international peace symbols. The peace symbol is encoded by Unicode as part of the Miscellaneous Symbols block, at U+262E PEACE SYMBOL. Olive branch = Classical antiquity =The use of the olive branch as a symbol of peace in Western civilization dates at least to 5th century BC Greece. The olive branch, which the Greeks believed represented plenty and drove away evil spirits, was one of the attributes of Eirene, the Greek goddess of peace. Eirene (whom the Romans called Pax), appeared on Roman Imperial coins with an olive branch. The Roman poet Virgil (7010 BC) associated 'the plump olive' with Pax and he used the olive branch as a symbol of peace in his Aeneid:The Romans believed there was an intimate relationship between war and peace. Mars, the god of war, had another aspect, Mars Pacifer, Mars the bringer of Peace, who is shown on coins of the later Roman Empire bearing an olive branch. Appian describes the use of the olive-branch as a gesture of peace by the enemies of the Roman general Scipio Aemilianus in the Numantine War and by Hasdrubal of Carthage. = Later representations =Poets of the 17th century associated the olive branch with peace.
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